European Parliament resolution of 13 December 2007 on Justice for the 'Comfort Women'

Comfort women

European Parliament resolution of 13 December 2007 on Justice for the 'Comfort Women' (sex slaves in Asia before and during World War II)            (日本語はこちら)

The European Parliament,

– having regard to the 200th anniversary of the abolition of the slave trade in 2007,

– having regard to the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women and Children (1921),
of which Japan is a signatory,

– having regard to Forced Labour Convention No. 29 (1930), ratified by Japan,

– having regard to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security

– having regard to the report by Gay McDougall, UN Special Rapporteur on Systematic Rape, Sexual
Slavery and Slave-like Practices during Armed Conflict (22 June 1998),

– having regard to the conclusions and recommendations of the 38th session of the UN Committee
Against Torture (9-10 May 2007),

– having regard to the Report of a Study of Dutch Government Documents on the Forced Prostitution of Dutch Women in the Dutch East Indies During the Japanese Occupation, The Hague (2004),

– having regard to the resolutions of the American Congress, adopted on 30 July 2007, and of the
Canadian Parliament, adopted on 29 November 2007,

– having regard to Rule 115 of its Rules of Procedure,

A. whereas the government of Japan, during its colonial and wartime occupation of Asia and the Pacific
Islands from the 1930s until the end of World War II, officially commissioned the acquisition of young
women, who became known to the world as ianfu or ‘comfort women’, for the sole purpose of sexual
servitude to its Imperial Armed Forces,

B. whereas historians conclude that over 100 000 women were enslaved,

C. whereas the ‘comfort women’ system included gang rape, forced abortions, humiliation, and sexual
violence resulting in mutilation, death or eventual suicide, in one of the largest cases of human trafficking in the 20th century,

D. whereas the dozens of ‘comfort women’ cases brought before Japanese courts have all ended in the dismissal of plaintiffs’ claims for compensation, despite court judgements acknowledging the Imperial
Armed Forces’ direct and indirect involvement, and the state’s responsibility,

E. whereas most of the victims of the ‘comfort women’ system have passed away, and the remaining
survivors are 80 or more years of age;

F. whereas over the past years numerous high-ranking members and officials of the Japanese
Government have made apologetic statements on the ‘comfort women’ system, while some Japanese
officials have recently expressed a regrettable desire to dilute or rescind those statements,

G. whereas the full extent of the sexual slavery system has never been fully disclosed by the government of Japan and some new required readings used in Japanese schools try to minimise the tragedy of the
‘comfort women’ and other Japanese war crimes during World War II,

H. whereas the mandate of the Asian Women’s Fund, a government-initiated private foundation whose
aim was the implementation of programs and projects to compensate for the abuse and suffering of the ‘comfort women’, came to an end on 31 March 2007,

1. Welcomes the excellent relationship between the European Union and Japan based on the mutually
shared values of a multi-party democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights;

2. Expresses its solidarity with the women who were victims of the ‘comfort women’ system through the duration of World War II;

3. Welcomes the statements by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono in 1993 and by Prime Minister
Tomiichi Murayama in 1994 on ‘comfort women’, as well as the Japanese parliament’s resolutions of
1995 and 2005 expressing apologies for wartime victims, including victims of the ‘comfort women’

4. Welcomes the Japanese Government’s initiative to establish, in 1995, the now-dissolved Asian
Women’s Fund, a largely government-funded private foundation, which distributed some ‘atonement
money’ to several hundred ‘comfort women’, but considers that this humanitarian initiative
cannot satisfy the victims’ claims of legal recognition and reparation under public international law,
as stated by the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Gay McDougall, in her 1998 report;

5. Calls on the Japanese Government formally to acknowledge, apologize, and accept historical and legal
responsibility, in a clear and unequivocal manner, for its Imperial Armed Force’s coercion of young
women into sexual slavery, known to the world as ‘comfort women’, during its colonial and wartime
occupation of Asia and the Pacific Islands from the 1930s until the end of World War II;

6. Calls on the Japanese Government to implement effective administrative mechanisms to provide
reparations to all surviving victims of the ‘comfort women’ system and the families of its deceased

7. Calls on the Japanese National Assembly (Diet) to take legal measures to remove existing
obstacles to obtaining reparations before Japanese courts; in particular, the right of individuals to claim
reparations against the government should be expressly recognized in national law, and cases for
reparations for the survivors of sexual slavery, as a crime under international law, should be prioritized,
taking into account the age of the survivors;

8. Calls on the government of Japan to refute publicly any claims that the subjugation and enslavement
of ‘comfort women’ never occurred;

9. Encourages the Japanese people and government to take further steps to recognize the full history of
their nation, as is the moral duty of all countries, and to foster awareness in Japan of its actions in the
1930s and 1940s, including in relation to ‘comfort women’; calls on the government of Japan to educate current and future generations about those events;

10. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Japanese Government and Parliament, the UN Human Rights Council, the governments of the ASEAN states, the Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea, the Republic of South Korea, the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan and Timor-Leste, and to the Council, the Commission and the Member States.




· 2007年をもって迎える奴隷貿易廃止200周年を尊重し、

· 日本も署名した婦人及児童の売買禁止に関する国際条約(1921)を尊重し、

· 日本が批准した強制労働条約第29条(1930)を尊重し、

· 女性と平和及び安全保障に関する国際連合安全保障理事会決議1325(2000年)を尊重し

· ゲイ・マクドゥーガルによる報告、武力衝突の際の組織的なレイプ、性奴隷状態と隷属的な行動に関する国連特別報告書(1998年6月22日)を尊重し、

· 第38回国連拷問禁止委員会(2007年5月9日、10日)の結論と勧告を尊重し

· 日本占領下オランダ領東インドにおけるオランダ人女性に対する強制売春に関するオランダ政府所蔵文書調査報告、ハーグ(2004)を尊重し、

· 2007年7月30日に採用された米国議会の決議と、2007年11月29日に採用されたカナダ議会の決議を尊重し、

· 手続きの規則の規則115を尊重し、

· A. 1930年代から第二次世界大戦終了までのアジアと太平洋諸島の植民地及び戦時占領地において、日本政府はianfuないしは'慰安婦'として世界に知られることとなる若い女性たちを皇軍の性的隷属下におくためだけに公式に徴用し、

· B. 歴史学者は10万人を超える女性が奴隷状態におかれたと結論づけ、

· C. '慰安婦'システムは輪姦、強制堕胎、侮辱及び性暴力を含み、障害、死や自殺を結果し、20世紀の人身売買の最も大きなケースのひとつであり、

· D. 日本の裁判所に持ち込まれた多数の'慰安婦'訴訟は、皇軍の直接・間接の関与を裁判所が認めながらも、原告による賠償請求はその全てにおいて却下に終わり、

· E. '慰安婦'システムの被害者のほとんどはすでに故人であり、生存者は80歳以上であり、

· F. この数年の間に、多数の日本政府の高位にある職員や公人が'慰安婦'システムに関する謝罪の声明を発した一方、日本の公人の幾人かはそれらの声明を希薄化したり無効化させようという残念な願望を最近になって表明し、

· G. 日本政府はその性奴隷システムの全貌をすべて明らかにしたことはなく、日本の学校で使用される教科書は、'慰安婦'の悲劇やその他の第二次世界大戦中の日本の戦争犯罪を矮小化しようと試み、

· H. 政府によって開始された民間財団であり、'慰安婦'の虐待と痛みを償うためのプログラムやプロジェクトを実施する役割を持つアジア女性基金の委任は、2007年3月31日をもって終了し、

· 1. 複党派民主主義、法の支配、人権の尊重などの価値を相互に共有することに基づく欧州連合と日本の間のすばらしい関係を歓迎し、

· 2. 第二次世界大戦中の'慰安婦'システムの被害者である女性たちと結束することを表明し、

· 3. 1993年の河野洋平内閣官房長官、1994年の村山富一首相による'慰安婦'に関する声明、及び1995年と2005年の'慰安婦'システムの被害者を含む戦時被害者に対する謝罪を表明した日本の国会の決議を歓迎し;

· 4.  日本政府によって1995年によって設立され、今は解散している、そのほとんどの資金が政府によるものである民間財団であるアジア女性基金が、'償い金 'を数百人の'慰安婦'に配ったことを歓迎するが、しかしこの人道的措置は被害者たちがもとめている法的な認知と、公的な国際法による賠償を満たすもので はいというゲイ・マクドゥーガルによる1998年の報告書、女性に対する暴力に関する国連特別報告書に述べられた内容を考慮し;

· 5.  1930年代から第二次世界大戦終了までのアジアと太平洋諸島の植民地及び戦時占領地において、世界に'慰安婦'として知られる、'若い女性を強制的に 性的奴隷状態においた皇軍の行為を、日本政府は明確かつあいまいさを避け、公式に認知、謝罪、そして歴史的、法的な責任を受け入れることを勧告し;

· 6. 生存している全ての'慰安婦'システムの被害者及びなくなった被害者の家族に対する賠償を行うための効果的な行政機構を日本政府が設置すべきことを勧告し;

· 7.  日本の国会は、日本の裁判所が賠償命令を下すための障害を取り除くべく法的措置を講じることを勧告し、特に個人が政府に対して賠償を求める権利は国内法 において至急実現されるべきであり、国際法の元で犯罪である性奴隷状態の生存者に対する賠償請求裁判は、生存者の年齢を考慮すれば優先されるべきであり;

· 8. '慰安婦'を服従させ隷属下におくことは一度もなかった、といった意見に対して日本政府は公的に反論すべきであることを勧告し、

· 9.  日本の人々と政府に対して、国の歴史を全て認識すること、そして'慰安婦'に関連することを含め1930年代から1940年代にかけての日本の行動に対 して注意をうながすために、さらなるステップを踏むことを奨励し; 日本政府にこれらの事例を現在及び未来の世代に教育することを勧告し;

· 10. 欧州議会議長に、この決議を日本政府と議会、国連人権委員会、ASEANの国々の政府、朝鮮民主主義人民共和国、大韓民国、中華人民共和国、台湾、東ティモール民主共和国、及び評議会、委員会と加盟国に送付することを命ずる。

日本軍性奴隷制に関する世界会議 NGO会議宣言

                                         (To English)



1) 日本軍「慰安婦」制度は政府主導の系統的に組織され、およそ200,000人のアジアの女性および少女の徴用した性奴隷の犯罪だった。
2) 国連および様々な国際機関が公式に確認したところによれば、日本軍性奴隷制は人道に反する犯罪であり、戦争犯罪であった。




1) 日本政府は、直ちに軍事性奴隷制募集で強制していないという発言を取り消し、1993年8月4日の河野談話を固守しなければならない。

2) 日本政府は日本軍性奴隷制を戦争犯罪として認め、国連総会によって採用された「国際人権法の著しい侵害および国際人道法の重大な侵害の被害者のための救済と賠償の権利の基本原理とガイドライン」に従わなければならない。

3) 日本政府は過去の真実を否定し、歴史を歪めることをやめなければならない。

4) 日本政府は、日本軍性奴隷制を記憶し、教育するためと被害者の追悼のために博物館を設立しなければならない。



1) 私たちは、日本政府に公式謝罪を要請したアメリカ合衆国の下院決議121の成立を歓迎し、カナダ、オーストラリアおよび欧州連合および世界のどこかで同様の国会動議や決議を可決しようとするキャンペーンを支援します。

2) 私たちは日本の市民組織と国会と共に積極的に活動し、日本政府に正式な謝罪と賠償の責任をとること、事実の調査をすること、法律制定と具体的な政治的インプルメンテーションによるそのような行為の再発予防をするよう強く促すであろう。

3) 私たちは調査を行い、日本軍性奴隷制問題が国連人権理事会のレベルで継続して扱われる必要があるとして要求する。

4) 私たちは、諸国の平和および女性人権博物館とのネットワークを通じた活動によって、「慰安婦」に関する公の教育に力を入れるであろう。

5) 私たちは、「慰安婦」生存者の痛みと苦難をあたかも自分たちのものであるかのように抱擁し、また政府の政策や市民組織を通じて生存者の福祉を支援する資源を確保するために連帯して働き続ける。

6) 私たちは、武力紛争下の女性に対する暴力の現代的な形と併せて、「慰安婦」運動の精神と成功を発展させ、進めるでしょう。

7) 私たちは世界から女性に対するすべての暴力を失くし、戦争と軍国主義を防止し、世界平和を達成するために国際連帯を評価し強化するでしょう。



The World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery Declaration of the NGO Conference

  The World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery
        Declaration of the NGO Conference

We, the participants of the first World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery, including survivors of “Japanese Military Sexual Slavery” and the NGO representatives from Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, Germany, Canada, Australia, China, and the US, have gathered in Los Angeles and hereby jointly declare:

First, regarding the history and legal responsibilities related to the “comfort women” system, we confirm once again the following:

1) The Japanese military “comfort women” system was a crime of sexual slavery that was a government-led, and systematically organized, drafting of approximately 200,000 Asian women and girls.

2) Japanese Military Sexual Slavery was a crime against humanity and a war crime, according to the U.N. and various international organizations’ official confirmation.

The Asian Women’s Fund, which was offered to some Asian victims, was a failure because it did not constitute a legal reparation from the Japanese government, without the acknowledgement of the criminality of Japanese Military Sexual Slavery, and without official apology and legal responsibility. Therefore, there still lies the responsibility of the Japanese government for legal reparation.

We do not solely focus on setting right history or on the restoration of justice for “comfort women victims, but seek to expand our focus to include women and children around the world who continue to suffer in situations of armed conflict and human rights violation. We believe it is our duty to give hope to these victims.

Therefore, we will keep expanding our coalition with international civil organizations and work together, in order to have the Japanese government accept fundamental principles that resolve the issue of Japanese military “comfort women.”

The following are demands to the Japanese government:

1) The Japanese government must immediately take back its denial of the use of force in the military sexual slavery recruitment, and abide by the Kono Statement of August 4, 1993. Further, they must disclose all documents on Japanese military “comfort women” for holistic fact-finding. To do this, the Japanese government must collaborate with the Japanese Diet to establish a bill to find facts.

2) The Japanese government must acknowledge Japanese military sexual slavery as a war crime and abide by the “Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparations for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Resolution” as adopted by the U.N. General Assembly. To accomplish this, the Japanese government must prepare domestic laws to carry out this goal.

3) The Japanese government must stop denying the truth of the past and distorting history. They should focus on teaching the right history to future generations. Through all of this, they can work towards preventing similar crimes from recurring.

4) The Japanese government must establish a museum for the memory and education of Japanese Military Sexual Slavery, and commemoration of the victims.

The unresolved issue of Japanese military “comfort women” from the Japanese government is creating a barrier for reconciliation between Japan and Asia. We will continue our activism in order to move beyond the 20th century, scared by war and conflict, for the realization of a new era of peace and reconciliation. The “Comfort Women” issue is one that must be addressed to uphold women’s human rights, build reconciliation in Asia, and realize peace in the world.

Therefore, we, the international solidarity movement, commit to growing in strength and declare to act on the below:

1) We welcome the passage of the United State’s House Resolution 121, requesting an official apology from the Japanese government, and support the campaigns to pass similar parliamentary motions and resolutions in Canada, Australia and the European Union and elsewhere in the world. We will demonstrate our active support in our solidarity actions for the passing of these motions and resolutions.

2) We will actively work together with Japanese civil organizations and the Japanese Diet to urge the Japanese government to take responsibility for a formal apology and reparations, the examination of facts, the prevention of the repetition of such acts through enacting legislative measures and concrete political implementations.

3) We will survey and demand that the issue of Japanese military sexual slavery needs to be continuously handled at the level of U.N. Human Rights Council. Further, we will pressure the Japanese government to accept and implement the U.N. recommendations.

4) We will put our strength into educating the public about “Comfort Women,” through the networked activities with individual countries’ peace and women’s human rights museums.

5) We will embrace the pain and suffering of “Comfort Women” survivors, as if our own, and continue to work in solidarity to secure resources to support the welfare of the survivors through civil organizations as well as government policies.

6) We will develop and advance the spirit and the success of the “comfort women” movement, in conjunction with contemporary forms of violence against women during armed conflicts.

7) We will value and strengthen international solidarity, in order to eliminate all forms of violence against women in the world, to deter wars and militarism, and to achieve world peace.

October 6, 2007

Participating Organizations at the NGO Conference at the World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery & The Planning Committee of the World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery

「慰安婦」問題連続学習会  第1回


「慰安婦」問題 よくある疑問に答える!

―第一線の研究者 林博史教授(関東学院大学)が





主催=日本軍「慰安婦」 問題行動ネットワーク

テーマ:お知らせ - ジャンル:ニュース

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